It is based on the principle that fat cells are more easily damaged by cooling than skin cells. Harvard scientist conducted a series of experiments in 2008 which showed that fatty tissue cooled below body temperature but above freezing will develop a local inflammation (panniculitis) which leads to (fat) cell death. Cryolipolysis was developed to apply low temperatures to the tissue via thermal conduction. In order to avoid frostbite, a specific temperature level and exposure are determined. Cryolipolysis makes use of a powerful vacuum which increases the inflammatory response. Fat tissue undergoes a localized cell death which takes place over a period of several months. In 2009 Coleman et al. reported results after cryolipolysis had been applied to “love handles” in a single session to ten patients. A session takes less than an hour and does not require any anaesthesia. With a single treatment a 20% reduction after two months and 25% reduction at six months in the fat layer as assessed by ultrasound. The lipolytic effect of treatment takes place within about two to four months.